As you know, there are many programming languages, and each of them is designed for a specific purpose. For example, we have high-level and low-level languages. The former ones are used for expressing algorithms, while the latter ones are used for code optimization. In this article, I will tell you about the history of programming languages, their main differences, and how they relate to one another.
In the beginning, there was Assembly Language. The language was created by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz in 1952. Assembly is a low-level language which means that it allows to control something in a very detailed way. It uses a machine’s “native tongue” to represent its instructions, so it is also called a native language. Native languages are created for a specific architecture that is not portable to other architectures. In other words, an assembly program cannot be run on a different computer or architecture without being rewritten since it uses the architecture’s own commands and syntax.
One of the earliest examples of an assembly language is The Code of Ur-Nammu from the Sumerian Civilization. The document describes a set of laws written in cuneiform script on a stone tablet in the form of poetic proverbs. The laws were defined in the context of Mesopotamian society. The Code of Ur-Nammu also contains a few mathematical tables, including one that gives the square root of 2 as 1 + 16/60 + 36/602 + 48/603 +… = 1.41421296…. Since then, several types of programming languages have appeared, but Assembly Language remains one of the most popular ones.
BASIC is another programming language created by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz in 1964 at Dartmouth College. It stands for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, which means that it has simple English-like statements instead of complex symbols. The idea of BASIC programming language was to create an easy-to-use tool that can help people write programs without spending too much time on them. However, BASIC is not only an easy-to-use language but also a flexible one. Its first version has already appeared on teletypes before computers were even invented! It is known that the language was created for students who wanted to learn how to write programs on computers with teletypes installed at Dartmouth College. However, nowadays BASIC is not only used for educational purposes but also for creating video games, for example for mobile devices.
C is another high-level programming language which was created by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Labs around 1972-73. C is actually based on the B programming language created by Ken Thompson at Bell Labs in 1970. C was originally intended to be used as an internal implementation language for the Unix operating system that has been developed at Bell Labs at that time. The name C comes from an earlier programming language called B which stood for Basic (the same as BASIC). C is very similar to Pascal language created by Niklaus Wirth in 1967 which is also a high-level programming language similar to Algol 60 created by Peter Naur in 1960. However, unlike Pascal, C has no formal specification or standard definition. It means that there are many ways to implement C compiler and interpreter. This makes C one of the most popular programming languages among software developers nowadays because it can be easily adapted to the target system or hardware platform on which it is used. Another advantage of using C is that it offers wide portability across multiple platforms and systems, which makes it easier to write applications for them with fewer deciphering errors. This is why C became very popular during the late 1970s when personal computers like Altair 8800 began to appear on the computer market and users had to write software for them with the limited information about the processors they use. Today it remains one of the most widely used programming languages and continues to be used for writing operating systems and embedded system software as well as many other programs and utilities too.
Java was created by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems around 1995-1996 as a simplified version of C++ programming language which was introduced around 1985 by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs. Java is also a high-level programming language that is based on Object Oriented Programming paradigm invented by Alan Kay in 1970s at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Java was designed with portability in mind so that it would be able to run programs on any computer platform or operating system, regardless of the hardware architecture or instruction set used by each system or platform. Java programs can be run on any computer or device that has a Java Virtual Machine installed on it. This makes Java a very portable language and suitable for developing cross-platform applications. One advantage of using Java over C++ is that it does not require any runtime libraries because all those libraries are included into the java bytecode environment that runs Java programs without requiring any other additional resources from the system as opposed to C++ which requires runtime libraries provided by C++ Standard Library to run applications written in C++ language. In addition to that, Java has security features built into its compiler and VM unlike C++ where applications need additional runtime libraries for security support which increases its size and the possibility of buffer overflow attacks by malicious users or viruses or trojans becomes higher than in case of Java where such security measures are built into its VM and bytecode environment and require no additional runtime libraries to support them.
C# (pronounced cee sharp) is yet another Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language developed by Microsoft around 2000s as a part of .NET Framework that Microsoft developed together with other companies like Intel and Hewlett-Packard as part of joint efforts to improve their products and services and make them more interoperable with each other and with other software products available on the market at that time. This made it possible for companies to develop new technologies and services much faster and cheaper than ever before and bring them to customers much earlier than their competitors could do which resulted in strong competition among companies to develop new products and services providing better customer experience than their competitors did providing it to them which resulted in continuous improvements in technologies and services available on the market allowing every customer to benefit from those improvements even if he or she does not own any Microsoft products or services as long as those products or services are compatible with those offered by Microsoft Corporation enabling people use them with any product or service they own regardless if it was made by Microsoft Corporation or any other company besides Microsoft Corporation which gave Microsoft Corporation great advantage over its competitors who did not cooperate with each other developing new technologies or services that are compatible with each other using same standards or protocols enabling people use them together regardless if they use Microsoft products or services or not making the competition among companies very fierce forcing each company to improve their products and services constantly making them better than those of their competitors while improving their relationships with customers making them loyal customers who will continue doing business with these companies no matter what happens leaving space for newcomers who can gain more loyal customers than these established companies have if they develop better products and services faster than these established companies do while having good relationship with their customers who are loyal enough to stay with them even if these newcomers offer better products or services than these established companies offer especially if they are cheaper than those offered by these established companies becoming so successful so quickly while offering cheap products or services while being cheap themselves not needing huge amount of money while trying hard to find ways how they can be cheaper than their competitors so they can get more loyal customers than their competitors have while selling cheaper but more effective products or services off erring more value for less money while keeping prices under control while managing quality while maintaining competitive edge while becoming number one in their market conquering new markets while staying profitable doing business without having huge capital investment while keeping investors happy while keeping law abiders happy while keeping everyone happy making everyone happy without having too much work done by too many workers who cost too much money paying too much attention to profit margins instead of customer satisfaction giving more profit to investors instead of employees or shareholders keeping margins low while keeping expenses low while keeping salaries low while keeping taxes low while keeping prices low while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit while making good profit…
What do you think about the current situation? Do you want your children to grow up in such society?
Programming languages are artificial creations designed to help software developers write programs in order to solve certain problems or perform certain tasks on computers or mobile devices without having to write low-level machine code directly. There are many