Activity of Structuring Data

Lesson Details:
July 10, 2020


I: Introduction

A: The definition of programming languages

Programming is the process of writing computer instructions to solve a particular problem. These instructions are written in programming languages which are languages designed specifically for writing programs.

B: What are the programming languages?

Computer Programing languages are languages used to instruct computers to perform tasks. The most common type of programing language is one that is used to control the operations of a computer system. These languages are referred to as machine languages or object codes. Machine languages consist entirely of numbers. They are thus very difficult for humans to understand, and very difficult for humans to read, interpret and write. Therefore, an interpreter is used to translate high level languages into machine language. This type of language is called assembly language. Even assembly language is difficult to write and understand by people so other languages are designed for human use called high-level programming languages. Many programming languages have been invented during the last few decades, the most common ones being C++, Java, C#, Python, Perl, Ruby, Visual Basic, Assembly, Lisp, JavaScript and Ada.

C: The History of Programming Languages

The first programming language was invented in 1950s by John Mauchly and J. W. Backus. It was called symbolic programming language and was used to develop the first high-level programming language called FORTRAN (formula translation). Another high-level programming language called LISP (list processing) was created in 1958 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). One year later Brooker invented COBOL (common business oriented language) which is still widely used today. In 1964 the first low-level programming language called ALGOL (ALgorithmic Language) was invented by Peter Naur and Ole-Johan Dahl. A new type of low-level programming language called BASIC (Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was invented by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, USA in 1964. It was meant to be simple so that students could learn how to program easily. For this reason it was named BASIC which stands for Beginner’s All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. The idea of BASIC spread quickly around the world and many books were written about it. There were many versions of the BASIC language, including Quick BASIC that was designed by Microsoft in 1982. Another famous low-level programming language is COBOL which was invented in 1960 at IBM Research Laboratory by Grace Murray Hopper. It is still used today across the world by banks, government offices and businesses of all sizes. Dennis Ritchie invented C programming language at AT&T Bell Labs in 1972. C++ was invented two years later by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs.

D: The Most Common Programming Languages Today

Today the most common high-level programming languages are C#, C ++ , java, python, perl, ruby, visual basic, assembly, lisp, javascript and ada. C++ is the most popular among these with 7 million programmers using it worldwide. Java comes second with around 6 million users globally. Python is close behind with 5 million users.. Most of the computer programming languages are freely available on the internet for free use by anyone who is interested in them. Some are paid for but they also have free versions available on the web.

II: Body

A: Activity of Structuring Data

The most important activity within computer programming is data structuring. Data structuring involves defining what types of data are required to perform various tasks and then organizing this data into suitable structures so that it can be processed correctly by computer programs efficiently.. Data structuring requires knowledge about data types, data variables and variables types . Datatypes are properties associated with data that can be used to identify it or describe its characteristics such as : number , integer , float , char , array , string , boolean , date , enumeration etc.. Data variables are variables that hold copies of structured data . Examples include variables such as list1 , count , string1 etc.. Variable types define how these variables can be used . Examples include integer1 , float1 , pointer1 etc.. Examples of activities involving data structuring include: 1) Identifying and writing down what types of data you will need 2) Determining how you will store this data 3) Defining how you will process this data 4) Compiling this data using suitable software programs 5) Organizing this data into suitable structures such as arrays , lists etc..

B: Activity of Structuring Data – Examples 1) Identifying and writing down what types of data you will need i) An example activity would be to decide that you need to process customer details along with their addresses and date of birth so that you can send them birthday cards regularly ii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process employee salary details along with their names and addresses so that you can send them performance reviews regularly iii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process student examination results along with their names and addresses so that you can send them progress reports regularly iv) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process employee performance reviews along with their names and addresses so that you can send them special bonuses regularly v) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process customer orders along with their addresses and date of birth so that you can send them discount vouchers regularly vi) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process supplies orders along with their part numbers and delivery times so that you can send them confirmations regularly vii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process supplier invoice payments along with their date of birth so that you can send them thank-you cards regularly viii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales orders along with their dates and amounts so that you can send them promotions regularly ix) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales letters along with their dates and addresses so that you can send them a copy regularly x) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales orders along with their dates and amounts so that you can send customers a copy regularly xi) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales orders along with customer names and dates so that you can send them a copy regularly xii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales letters along with their dates and addresses so that you can send them a copy regularly xiii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales letters along with their dates and addresses so that you can send them a copy regularly xiv) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales letters along with their dates and addresses so that you can send them a copy regularly xv) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process sales letters along with customer names and addresses so that you can send them a copy regularly xvi) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process invoices along with their prices and addresses so that you can send customers a copy regularly xvii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process invoices along with their prices and addresses so that you can send customers a copy regularly xviii) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process invoices along with their prices and addresses so that you can send customers a copy regularly xix) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process invoices along with their prices and addresses so that you can send customers a copy regularly xx) Another example activity would be to decide that you need to process invoices along with their prices and addresses so that you can send customers a copy regularly 2) Determining how you will store this data i) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be stored electronically or on paper ii) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be stored using computers or using paper iii) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be stored in files or using charts iv) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be stored in folders or using lists 3) Defining how you will process this data i) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be processed automatically or manually ii) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be processed immediately or periodically iii) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should transferred electronically or physically iv) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be processed using computers or using paper iv) An example activity would be deciding whether or not certain data should be processed using

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